This book provides a collection of critical pieces that support the idea that good teaching and learning of geography in fieldwork and using technology should consider the dimensions of curriculum design, instructional design and resource provision, as well as assessment for such learning activities. Further, it clearly describes the thinking, experiences and critical comments concerning two broad areas of learning outside the traditional classroom - in the field and with technology.
This book reviews the potential mechanisms in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs), in the hope that this can help arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to be more used efficiently as a biostimulant to enhance stress tolerance in the host plants. AMF, as well as plants, are often exposed to all or many of the abiotic and biotic stresses, including extreme temperatures, pH, drought, water-logging, toxic metals and soil pathogens. Studies have indicated a quick response to these stresses involving several mechanisms, such as root morphological modification, reactive oxygen species change, osmotic adjustment, direct absorption of water by extraradical hyphae, up-regulated expression of relevant stressed genes, glomalin-related soil protein release, etc. The underlying complex, multi-dimensional strategy is involved in morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes. The AMF responses are often associated with homeostatic regulation of the internal and external environment, and are therefore critical for plant health, survival and restoration in native ecosystems and good soil structure.
A practical introduction to state-of-the-art freeform optics design for LED packages and applications By affording designers the freedom to create complex, aspherical optical surfaces with minimal or no aberrations, freeform design transcends the constraints imposed by hundreds of years of optics design and fabrication. Combining unprecedented design freedom with precise light irradiation control, freeform optics design is also revolutionizing the design and manufacture of high quality LED lighting. The first and only book of its kind, Freeform Optics for LED Packages and Applications helps put readers at the forefront of the freeform optics revolution. Designed to function as both an authoritative review of the current state of the industry and a practical introduction to advanced optical design for LED lighting, this book makes learning and mastering freeform optics skills simpler and easier than ever before with: Real-world examples and case studies systematically describing an array of algorithms and designs-from new freeform algorithms to design methods to advanced optical designs Coding for all freeform optics algorithms covered-makes it easier and more convenient to start developing points of freeform optics and construct lenses or reflectors, right away Case studies of a range of products, including designs for a freeform optics LED bulb, an LED spotlight, LED street lights, an LED BLU, and many more Freeform Optics for LED Packages and Applications is must-reading for optical design engineers and LED researchers, as well as advanced-level students with an interest in LED lighting. It is also an indispensable working resource design practitioners within the LED lighting industry.
Overview of Signal Transduction in Tumor Metastasis.- Microenvironment Triggers EMT, Migration and Invasion of Primary Tumor via Multiple Signal Pathways.- The ERK1/2 MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway in Tumor Progression and Metastasis.- Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases and Metastasis.- Grb2 and Other Adaptor Proteins in Tumor Metastasis.- The Role of ROS Signaling in Tumor Progression.- Signal Cross Talks for Sustained MAPK Activation and Cell Migration Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species: The Involvement in Tumor Progression.- Insights into the Dynamics of Focal Adhesion Protein Trafficking in Invasive Cancer Cells and Clinical Implications.- Notch Signaling in Cancer Metastasis.- New Concepts on the Critical Functions of Cancer- and Metastasis-Initiating Cells in Treatment Resistance and Disease Relapse: Molecular Mechanisms, Signaling Transduction Elements and Novel Targeting Therapies.- Involvement of Lipid Rafts in Growth Factor Receptors-Mediated Signaling for Cancer Metastasis.- Cadherin-Catenin Signaling in Ovarian Cancer Progression.- PTP4A3, a Signal Molecule Deregulated in Uveal Melanoma Metastasis.- Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Hepatocarcinogenesis and Metastasis of Hepatoma.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the benefits of biofertilizers as an alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides.Agricultural production has increased massively over the last century due to increased use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, but these gains have come at a price. The chemicals are not only expensive; they also reduce microbial activity in agricultural soils and accumulate in the food chain, with potentially harmful effects for humans. Accordingly, it is high time to explore alternatives and to find solutions to overcome our increasing dependence on these chemicals.
Biofertilizers, which consist of plant remains, organic matter and microorganisms, might offer an alternative. They are natural, organic, biodegradable, eco-friendly and cost-effective. Further, the microbes present in the biofertilizers are important, because they produce nutrients required for plant growth (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), as well as substances essential for plant growth and development (e.g., auxins and cytokinins). Biofertilizers also improve the physical properties, fertility and productivity of soil, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers while maintaining high crop yield. This makes biofertilizers a powerful tool for sustainable agriculture and a sustainable environment.
The book covers the latest research on biofertilizers, ranging from beneficial fungal, bacterial and algal inoculants; to microbes for bioremediation, wastewater treatment; and recycling of biodegradable municipal, agricultural and industrial waste; as well as biocontrol agents and bio-pesticides. As such, it offers a valuable resource for researchers, academics and students in the broad fields of microbiology and agriculture.